The State Council recently issued the "Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting Good and Fast Development in Pastoral Areas." What is the status of pastoral areas in China's ecological construction and economic and social development? How to promote good and fast development of pastoral areas? What are the guidelines and policies adopted by the country? This reporter interviewed the relevant person in charge of the National Development and Reform Commission.
Question: What role does pastoral areas play in national ecology, economy, and national unity?
A: China's pastoral areas include 268 pastoral areas in Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Ningxia, and Shanxi, and 268 pastoral areas in semi-pastoral counties (banners and cities). Nearly 4 million square kilometers, accounting for 42% of the country's land area; grassland area of 3.7 billion acres, accounting for 62% of the country's grassland area. Grassland is the largest terrestrial ecosystem in China. The pastoral area is the birthplace and water conservation area of major rivers, and its ecological status is very important.
Grassland animal husbandry is the basic industry for economic development in pastoral areas, and is the main source of income for pastoralists. It is an important part of the national livestock husbandry. The resources of mineral resources, hydropower, wind energy and solar energy in the pastoral areas are enriched, and tourism resources are abundant. It is an important continuation of strategic resources in China.
The vast majority of pastoral areas are mostly distributed in frontier areas and ethnic minority areas and bear the important task of safeguarding national unity and stability in the border areas.
Q: Why is it proposed to promote good and fast development of pastoral areas?
A: Since the reform and opening up, especially since the implementation of the strategy for the large-scale development of the western region, the ecological construction in the pastoral areas has been carried out on a large scale. The mode of development of the livestock husbandry in the grasslands has been gradually transformed, the pace of infrastructure construction has been accelerated, the herdsmen's living standards have improved remarkably, and the appearance of urban and rural areas has undergone gratifying changes. The development of pastoral areas has already taken a stand. At the new historical starting point.
At the same time, we must clearly see that the overall deterioration of the grassland ecology has not yet been fundamentally curbed, and the extensive growth mode of the grassland animal husbandry has been difficult to sustain. The infrastructure and social development in the pastoral areas have owed more debts, and the improvement of the herdsmen’s living standards has generally lagged behind in the agricultural areas. The pastoral areas are still difficult for China to build a well-off society in an all-round way.
To promote better and faster development of pastoral areas is an urgent need to strengthen grassland ecological protection and construction and build a national ecological security barrier; it is a realistic choice to transform the development mode of grassland animal husbandry and increase the income of herdsmen; it is to narrow the regional development gap and realize a well-off society in an all-round way. The inevitable requirement of the goal is a strategic move that allows the people of all ethnic groups to share the results of reform and development, promote national unity, and stabilize the border.
Question: How do we understand the basic guidelines for the development of pastoral areas proposed in the "Opinions"?
A: The "Opinions" pointed out that under the new historical conditions, the development of pastoral areas must establish the basic principle of organic integration of production and ecology, and give priority to a new path of economic and social development.
Grassland is not only an important production material for the development of animal husbandry, but also carries important ecological functions. For a long time, due to the impact of priority production in the period of absolute shortage of agricultural and livestock products, the production function of grasslands was emphasized, and the ecological functions of grasslands were neglected. As a result, the long-term overload of pastures and the relationship between human and animal husbandry caused the grassland's ecological environment to be difficult The root cause of the vicious cycle.
It must be realized that only by achieving a virtuous circle of grassland ecology can we lay a solid foundation for the sustainable development of grassland husbandry, and we can also meet the urgent needs of society for building an ecological civilization.
Q: How to implement the above basic guidelines?
A: Stick to the basic principle of eco-organic integration and ecological priority, require all regions and departments to firmly establish the ecological priority concept, accelerate the transformation of economic development mode as the main line, and ensure the improvement of people's livelihood as the fundamental starting point and endeavor, and strive to build pastoral areas. It will become a new pastoral area with good ecology, ample living, economic development, ethnic solidarity and social stability.
First of all, grassland ecological protection should be stepped up, focusing on ecologically fragile areas, guided by compensation policies, supported by major ecological projects, and ensured by institutional construction. We must adhere to the combination of engineering measures and management measures to strengthen comprehensive management of grassland ecosystems. Promote the restoration of grassland vegetation.
Secondly, we must speed up the transformation of economic development methods, and vigorously promote the transformation of extensive grassland husbandry to quality and efficiency. We must achieve “a ban on grazing, no ban on livestock, and no reduction in livestock”, a win-win situation for grassland ecological protection and animal husbandry, and vigorously promote the pastoral industry. Structural adjustment, actively develop and strengthen the characteristics and advantages of the industry, improve the quality of secondary production, increase the proportion of tertiary industries, and strengthen economic strength in pastoral areas.
In addition, we must earnestly ensure and improve people’s livelihood, build infrastructure for water, electricity, roads, and houses in the pastoral areas, strengthen the development of public services such as education, health care, culture, and sports in the pastoral areas, and guide the herdsmen to develop family management and transfer to other industries so that Herdsmen share the fruits of reform and development.
Q: What kind of supportive policies has the country adopted for the good and fast development of pastoral areas?
A: The Opinions propose a series of supporting policies and major projects, which mainly involve the construction of grassland ecological protection, the development of grassland animal husbandry, the development of characteristic and advantageous industries in pastoral areas, the transformation of herdsmen into industries, infrastructure construction, social development, poverty alleviation and development, and rural integration. Eight aspects such as reforms.
In terms of grassland ecological protection and construction, the state will increase the implementation of the project of returning livestock to grassland and increase the central subsidy standards. The provinces (districts) of the eight major grassland pastoral areas have implemented comprehensive grazing prohibition subsidies and grassland and livestock balancing incentive policies, and the central government has granted subsidies in accordance with the measurement standards of 6 yuan and 1.5 yuan per mu respectively.
The state will start the implementation of the transformation demonstration project of grassland animal husbandry, support the construction of beef cattle (sheep) standardization breeding communities (fields), etc.; implement supporting policies such as tax incentives and financial subsidies; support the development of specialized cooperative organizations for pastoralists; and increase the related agricultural research funding for pastoral areas. To support the construction of breeding stock breeding grounds and forage breeding bases, to implement the animal epidemic prevention and culling policy, to select local qualified personnel for cultivating and strengthening grassroots agricultural technology promotion teams, and to support disaster-prone disaster counties (banners and cities). ) Forage materials storage and grassland fire prevention, rat pests, and poisonous grass control infrastructure construction; grazing calves and goats in pastoral areas are included in the range of fine seed subsidies, and subsidies for forage grass seed subsidies and herdsmen's production materials are implemented to increase support for purchase of pastoral machinery purchase subsidies in pastoral areas. , to provide insurance premium subsidies for eligible grassland animal husbandry insurance.
In terms of the conversion of herdsmen to production, the state implements a more active employment policy, provides free employment information and employment introduction services for qualified transferable herders, and implements vocational training subsidies, occupational skill appraisal subsidies, and early education in pastoral areas. High school graduates participate in labor preparation training subsidies and other policies; strengthen the establishment of public employment service system and promotion of labor brand promotion; do a good job in the transfer of social insurance relations for migrant workers; establishment of poison weed management, fence management, fire protection, and pest and pest monitoring. The grasslands manage public welfare posts and organize herders to carry out grassland management and protection.
In the aspect of poverty alleviation and development, central and provincial finances have increased the transfer payments to counties (banners and cities) in pastoral areas and semi-pastoral areas, increased funding for fiscal poverty alleviation funds, work-for-work funds, and credit-for-poverty funds to implement poverty-stricken villages in pastoral areas. The whole village (township) promotes poverty alleviation and implements contiguous development and comprehensive management of contiguous and particularly difficult areas. It actively and steadily pushes forward the construction of poverty alleviation and relocation projects in other areas, increases the implementation of the Xingbian and the People’s Action Plan, and supports the border provinces (regions) in establishing borderline subsidies. mechanism.